marcosolo, 21. Juni 2003 10:30:53 MESZ
John Perry Barlow - Eine Cyberspace-Unabhängigkeitserklärung
marcosolo, 2. Juni 2003 21:30:31 MESZ
Schools under fire for 'free-speech zones'
University of Texas at El Paso student Ruben Reyes is among students who have taken university officials to court over "free-speech zones."
DALLAS, Texas (AP) -- Time and again, Ruben Reyes asked the University of Texas at El Paso for permission to hold protests about environmental dangers, the administration and censorship -- typical stuff for a campus demonstration.
Each time, Reyes was turned down by officials who said the student union where the creative-writing student wanted to talk was not one of the two "free-speech zones" on the campus of 17,000 students.
Reyes responded by joining a growing number of students around the country who have taken university officials to court, complaining that free speech is being stifled by institutions that in many cases promote themselves as pillars of democracy.
Free-speech zones began appearing on campuses in the 1980s as a way to allow expression without interrupting learning. But in recent years, students and activists say that limiting speech to a few designated areas is unconstitutional because it effectively bans speech everywhere else.
"What they have done is turn the First Amendment on its head," said Harvey Silverglate, a former Harvard law professor who co-founded the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education.
Instead of designating places where students can speak, schools should be designating only places where they cannot, Silverglate said.
Some universities have agreed. Since November, West Virginia University has dropped its free speech zones after a legal challenge, and the University of Texas opened its entire Austin campus to demonstrations after a campus clash between abortion activists. Still pending is an ACLU lawsuit against the University of Maryland over free-speech zones.
At some schools, the battle is not over zones but codes that restrict the content of speech. Harvard Law School, for example, is considering a ban on offensive speech after a series of racially charged incidents.
Silverglate's group sued Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania this year over a diversity policy that warns against "unconscious attitudes toward individuals which surface through the use of discriminatory semantics" and conduct or "attitude" that "annoys" others.
At the University of California at Berkeley, the birthplace of the Free Speech Movement during the 1960s, administrators replaced the school's broad ban on "fighting words" a year ago with a more narrow policy that prohibits harassing speech toward a specific person. Generally, hate speech is allowed against a group, but not an individual, said university counsel Maria Shanle. (Berkeley does not restrict speech to certain zones.)
At the University of Houston in Texas, an anti-abortion student group went to court to get the right to display pictures of dead fetuses outside designated speech zones. Under the university policy at the time, speech was allowed outside those zones only if the dean of students agreed.
A judge allowed the display and struck down the policy, saying it granted the dean "unfettered discretion" to decide what speech to allow outside the zones. The students sued again when the university changed its policy to ban all speech outside the four designated zones.
"Thirty-five thousand people and there's these four small areas and that's it," said Jonathan Saenz, a law student and Pro-Life Cougars chairman. "It sent the message to the students that your speech isn't that important."
University spokesman Mike Cinelli said schools have the right to regulate the time, place and manner of speech. He also said schools can limit demonstrations that "disrupt the academic mission" of the university.
Free-speech activists say some universities are violating U.S. Supreme Court rulings that say limits on campus speech can only be strong enough to protect normal campus activities.
"It's one thing to say no bullhorns right outside classrooms," said Jamin Raskin, a constitutional law professor at American University who wrote a book, "We the Students," that focused on students' constitutional rights. "It's another thing to say you can only leaflet in the far northeast quadrant of school."
Sidney Buchanan, a law professor at the University of Houston for 36 years, argues that speech zones can pass constitutional muster if they are administered fairly. He said the Supreme Court has never explicitly listed universities among other traditional public forums and therefore speech is not as protected as it would be on public streets, on sidewalks and in parks.
Buchanan said universities can drift into unconstitutional territory if they let content dictate who has access to certain areas.
At the El Paso campus, Reyes said administrators used intimidating tactics such as summoning campus police to supervise demonstrations and threatening administrative action against students who push the limits on speech.
"What they use is this phrase: 'Would you like to endanger your relationship with the university?"' said Reyes, who recently ran for City Council.
UTEP Dean of Students William Schafer did not return repeated requests for comment. He told the El Paso Times in March that the university supports "the free exchange of information and expression."
Reyes' battle has caught the attention of state lawmakers, who are pushing legislation to cut down on the use of designated speech zones and other restrictions on speech.
In the meantime, Reyes said, he will keep trying to stir things up, one application at a time.
marcosolo, 30. Mai 2003 18:27:37 MESZ
Irak and weapons of mass destruction according to the Bush-Administration
Simply stated, there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of
August 26, 2002
Right now, Iraq is expanding and improving facilities that were used
for the production of biological weapons.
George W. Bush
September 12, 2002
If he declares he has none, then we will know that Saddam Hussein is
once again misleading the world.
December 2, 2002
We know for a fact that there are weapons there.
January 9, 2003
Our intelligence officials estimate that Saddam Hussein had the
materials to produce as much as 500 tons of sarin, mustard and VX nerve
George W. Bush
January 28, 2003
We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass
destruction, is determined to make more.
February 5, 2003
We have sources that tell us that Saddam Hussein recently authorized
Iraqi field commanders to use chemical weapons -- the very weapons the
dictator tells us he does not have.
February 8, 2003
So has the strategic decision been made to disarm Iraq of its weapons
of mass destruction by the leadership in Baghdad? I think our judgment
has to be clearly not.
March 8, 2003
Intelligence gathered by this and other governments leaves no doubt
that the Iraq regime continues to possess and conceal some of the most
lethal weapons ever devised.
March 17, 2003
Well, there is no question that we have evidence and information that
Iraq has weapons of mass destruction, biological and chemical
particularly . . . all this will be made clear in the course of the
operation, for whatever duration it takes.
March 21, 2003
There is no doubt that the regime of Saddam Hussein possesses weapons
of mass destruction. As this operation continues, those weapons will be
identified, found, along with the people who have produced them and who
Gen. Tommy Franks
March 22, 2003
I have no doubt we're going to find big stores of weapons of mass
Defense Policy Board member Kenneth Adelman
March 23, 2003
One of our top objectives is to find and destroy the WMD. There are a
number of sites.
Pentagon Spokeswoman Victoria Clark
March 22, 2003
We know where they are. They are in the area around Tikrit and Baghdad.
March 30, 2003
Obviously the administration intends to publicize all the weapons of
mass destruction U.S. forces find -- and there will be plenty.
Neocon scholar Robert Kagan
April 9, 2003
I think you have always heard, and you continue to hear from officials,
a measure of high confidence that, indeed, the weapons of mass
destruction will be found.
April 10, 2003
We are learning more as we interrogate or have discussions with Iraqi
scientists and people within the Iraqi structure, that perhaps he
destroyed some, perhaps he dispersed some. And so we will find them.
April 24, 2003
There are people who in large measure have information that we need . .
.. so that we can track down the weapons of mass destruction in that
April 25, 2003
We'll find them. It'll be a matter of time to do so.
May 3, 2003
I am confident that we will find evidence that makes it clear he had
weapons of mass destruction.
May 4, 2003
I never believed that we'd just tumble over weapons of mass destruction
in that country.
May 4, 2003
I'm not surprised if we begin to uncover the weapons program of Saddam
Hussein -- because he had a weapons program.
George W. Bush
May 6, 2003
U.S. officials never expected that "we were going to open garages and
find" weapons of mass destruction.
May 12, 2003
I just don't know whether it was all destroyed years ago -- I mean,
there's no question that there were chemical weapons years ago --
whether they were destroyed right before the war, (or) whether they're
Maj. Gen. David Petraeus, Commander 101st Airborne
May 13, 2003
Before the war, there's no doubt in my mind that Saddam Hussein had
weapons of mass destruction, biological and chemical. I expected them
to be found. I still expect them to be found.
Gen. Michael Hagee, Commandant of the Marine Corps
May 21, 2003
Given time, given the number of prisoners now that we're interrogating,
I'm confident that we're going to find weapons of mass destruction.
Gen. Richard Myers, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff
May 26, 2003
They may have had time to destroy them, and I don't know the answer.
May 27, 2003
For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass
destruction (as justification for invading Iraq) because it was the one
reason everyone could agree on.
May 28, 2003
Quotes shamelessly stolen from